Options for Pakistan in the Horn of Africa

Introduction The strategically located Horn of Africa comprises Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia. In some discussions, Kenya is also considered as an extended part of the region. The area holds a great potential for development but is mired in conflict.1In a desperate bid to create regional stability, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia have created a regional […]

Islamic Peacekeeping Force – The future of Islamic Military Alliance (IMA)

Published in Journal of Pak Army Green Book 2018 Abstract The standard peacekeeping model of intrusive international diplomacy emerged after the creation of the UN in the post-World War II era. A typical peacekeeping force is composed of soldiers and policemen belonging to a group of nations willing to contribute troops and funds for a […]

Hybrid Warfare – Challenges by Pakistan

The article was published in Strategic Thought, a Journal of National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad Abstract In order to achieve the political aims, the traditional means of kinetic warfare have always been supplemented by aggressive diplomacy, economic coercion, intelligence gathering, propaganda and proxy wars. A combination of all these tools is essential for a nation […]

Nuclear Mainstreaming of Pakistan: Does Pakistan Need It?

Abstract Ever since it dropped atomic bombs over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki towards the end of the Second World War, successive US governments have used all manner of diplomatic, economic and military tools to prevent other nations from getting the bomb. International nuclear non-proliferation agenda is a top US foreign policy priority. […]