Erdogan’s Gamble

Receb Tayyip Erdogan is modern Turkey’s longest running head of the state after the founder of the Turkish republic Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Born in a poor neighborhood of Istanbul to a religious teacher, Erdogan heads the ruling Justice Party of Turkey. Erdogan has not only overseen transformation of Turkey into a modern economy, he has […]

Hybrid Warfare – Challenges by Pakistan

The article was published in Strategic Thought, a Journal of National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad Abstract In order to achieve the political aims, the traditional means of kinetic warfare have always been supplemented by aggressive diplomacy, economic coercion, intelligence gathering, propaganda and proxy wars. A combination of all these tools is essential for a nation […]